The second of the four headings into which Theoretical Medicine is
divided deals with the theory of the State of the Body of Man.
Three states of the Body are possible-health, disease, and a condition

which is neither health nor disease, that is, convalescence and old
Now, health is a physical condition in which all the functions are
healthy. Restoration to health is the best gift of God to Man. It is impossible to act rightly and to pay proper attention to the obedience due to
the Lord
except when health is present. There is nothing similar. Let the
worshipper give thanks for his health and never be ungrateful.
Said the Prophet: There are two gifts of which many men are cheatedhealth and leisure. Al-Bukhari extracted this tradition.
Said the Prophet: There are worshippers of God whom he protects
from death in battle and from sickness. He makes them to live in good
health and to die in good health, and yet He bestows upon them the seats
of His
Said Abu Dard: 0 Prophet, if I am cured of my sickness and am thankful
for it, is it better than if I were sick and bore it patiently ?And the Prophet
replied: Verily the Prophet loves good health, just as you do.
says that al-Tirmidhi said: The Prophet said: He who wakes
up in the morning healthy in body and sound in soul and whose daily
bread is assured, he is as one that possesses the world.
Folio 7 Again al-Tirmidhi quotes from Abu Harlra that he said that the Prophet
said: The first question put to the worshipper on the Day of the Resurrection about the luxuries of the World is: Did I not make
you a healthy
body? And next: Did I not satisfy you with cool water?
And again he relates that the Prophet said: O ‘Abbas, petition God for
health in this World and the next. Al-Bazar
reports this saying.
The Prophet also said: Ask God for forgiveness and health. After
security of faith nothing better is given to a man than good health. This
is told by al-Nasa’i.
No petition is more pleasing to God than a request for good health is a
saying reported by al-Tirmidhi.
A certain Bedouin once asked the Prophet, saying: O Prophet of God,
what petition shall I make to God after I have finished the prayer ? And
he replied: Ask for good health.
Among the wise sayings of the Prophet David are the following: Health
is a hidden kingdom. And again: Sadness for one hour ages a man by one
year. And again: Health is a crown on the heads of the healthy, only seen
by the sick. And again: Health is an invisible luxury.ome of our ancestors used to
say: How many rich gifts has God
placed beneath every vein.
And indeed
may God give us health in the Faith in this life and in the
As for Disease, it is a state just the opposite to this. It originates from
want or misdeed or from misfortune.
The third of the four headings into which Theoretical Medicine is
divided deals with the theory of Causes or Aetiology.
Now, the Causes are six. The first of these is Air. Air is essential to
keep the soul evenly balanced. For as long as air remains pure, no debility
Folio 8 is mixed in it and no foul wind. It is an unrecognised protection.
Every season produces diseases compatible with it and expels what is
incompatible. Thus, summer breeds bile and causes bilious diseases, but
cures cold diseases. And the like can be said of the other seasons.
Cold air is strengthening and improves the digestion. Hot air does just
the reverse. A change in the Air is a cause of Pestilence. And if God will,
See folio 141 that will be described later.
The second Cause is Food & Drink. When hot, these produce heat in the
body. And vice versa.
The third Cause is Bodily Movement & Rest. Movement breeds warmth
in the body. And vice versa.
The fourth Cause is Emotional Movement & Rest, as occurs in cases of
anger, joy, apprehension, grief, and modesty. These states set the soul
in motion, internally indeed but apparent externally. I will revert to
See folio 24 these later if God wills.
The fifth Cause is Waking & Sleeping. Sleep causes the soul to bubble
within the body, although it cools the outside. Hence the sleeper requires
some outer garment. Wakefulness is just the reverse of this.
The sixth Cause is Excretion & Retention. A balance between these
protects health.
The fourth of the four headings into which Theoretical Medicine is
divided deals with the Theory of Signs.
Black hair and a black body are signs of heat: the opposite a sign of cold.
Similarly, a fat body or a thin body. An excess of flesh is a sign of heat
combined with damp. Excess of fat is a sign of cold combined with damp.
In the same
way excessive desire for sleep is a sign of damp, whereas a
Folio 9 diminished desire is a sign of dryness. A moderate desire is the sign of a
Similarlythe appearanceof the organsis a sign. Capaciousorgansarea
sign of heat and the opposite a sign of coldness. In the same way dreams
show temperaments.The seeing of colours, yellow or red, or flashes of
light, all these are signs of heat. And theiroppositesaresigns of coldness
Again, excess of body odouris a sign of heat:lackof it a sign of cold,


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